A solution to the heap problem:

The doubly balanced agriculture:
integration with population

A 'balanced agriculture' is defined as an agriculture where the animals are fed from plants that get their nutrients from the manure of the animals. This sounds like a perfect recipe for a sustainable nutrient circulation.

However, since food (normally) is exported from the farm, the farm loses about 4 kg phosphorus per hectare. This is unsustainable in the long run.

If the nutrients lost in this way are returned to the farm as humanure, the only losses are the leakage from farmland to drainage water. These losses can be recovered by different wetpark methods, thereby attaining almost 100% circulation.

See the calculations and the figures below. (For a simpler version of the figure, move the cursor over it!)


(Kg phosphorus /ha)

Possibilities for circulation


Circulation between animals and plants


If nutrients are circulated between animals and plants (Balanced agriculture)


Loss from the balanced agriculture as food


If nutrients from food produced for humans (from the balanced agriculture) are recovered


Leakage from agricultural land


If measures also are taken to stop leakage from farm land


Annual P turnover from ONE person
(food --> urine+faeces)


Persons needed to recycle the nutrients in the food from the balanced agriculture:
5,7 per ha



The sustainable agriculture



Why phosphorus recycling is necessary

An article about this, 2002a